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soc 361.pptx

soc 361.pptxMain topics - add related quotes gathered from interview transcripts

A word map for an overview of key issues.

1. What is a healthy diet? ( Caitlin: come up with visuals that would show the trends of this section--select quotes that match visuals that have been researched. Look at revised research on what is healthy and images that go along with it. )

Research Food Slides\!.pptx

"A protein, some sort of meat and probably vegetables or something." (#3)

"I’d say it’s [my usual meal] usually very well rounded [when I'm at home]- my mom is very health-conscious." (#9)

"all things that are high in calories are delicious to me, but I try to limit my portions. I try to eat half" (alex's interview 1)

"Yeah, a cereal bar is pretty healthy." (#3)

"Fruit, cereal [is healthy.]" (#3)

" [I eat out] a couple times a week.. .A sandwich of any type" (#3)

"Depends; half the time it [eating a sandwich] is, half the time it isn’t. Sometimes it’s fast food." (#3)

" [I usually make] tuna or turkey sandwiches." (#3)

"Yes. [fixing my own food] is less greasy, I buy healthier groceries." (#3)

"yes, conscious but don't always do anything about. I just try to focus on portions instead of all those medical findings and nonsense that is purely speculation. For example, I will only eat 1/2 sandwich instead of a whole sandwich" (alex's interview 1)

"Sometimes I just don't know what to eat. Yes, the foods I want to have aren't popular with most people but seafood and its too expensive to buy.....the dorm doesn't serve it or fresh fruit" (alex's interview 1).

"I do eat a lot of low-fat ice cream, isn't that ok?" (alexandra's interview 1)

"usually health (because I try to eat a yogurt everyday and fruit) but sometimes its just too much trouble to make something since I am in the dorm" (alex's interview 1)

"nope, I’m happy with what i eat-with my diet of a 5 year old, haha" (alex's interview #2)

"pasta, chicken nuggets, hot dog, burger, basically what you image a 5 year old eating are the types of meals i do" (alex's interview #2)

"I try to get fruits and vegetables to like balance it all out." (#1)

"usually if I’m at a buffet or something, I’ll overeat and it’s because I just want a little bit of everything and I feel pretty sick afterwards" "because I know it’s not what I ate, it’s how much I ate" (#1)

Snacking: "Special K bar is just easy like when I’m in class or something but um sometimes I’ll eat like, I don’t even know, like something from the vending machine at school or something" (#1) also relates to time limitations

"At school I eat it [fast food] more often than at home because it’s so close by but at school I would say like maybe once or twice a month." (#1) (this is less often than most)

". . . different then trying to make the same thing yourself cause it’s just doused in grease and delicious." (#1) (ease and appeal)

"I could never be a vegetarian I like meat too much." (#1)

"I think a lot of vegetarians, um like, I’ve seen a lot of vegetarians that don’t do it the right way, like they either eat too many carbs or they don’t like a lot of vegetables so they just get really unhealthy and they don’t get their share of protein so they just get unhealthy because of it." (#1) the right way - judgement

"On average? Seven days a week" (#1) she eats fruits/vegetables daily

"I feel a lot more, just energetic when I eat fresh fruits and vegetables and stuff that I cooked myself and I get really lethargic when I eat U hot’s or any of the things around here that are bad for you." (#1)

"I don’t know when I eat… if I know I’ve like started eating like really terribly, early in the day I tend to be like, oh ok well I ate badly earlier so I can just continue today because it’s just like…I like to get it all out of my system at once and by the end of the day I’m like that can never happen again… like I can see it already" (#1) (freedom)

"I’m not a picky eater, I will consume pretty much anything." (#2)

"I love carbs or anything like pasta, rice, bread, which is like terrible cause I could eat that everyday for the rest of my life" (#2)

"I know people that don’t eat any meat and have never eaten meat and they are perfectly healthy so I guess I cant say that [being a vegetarian] it’s not good for you but I don’t really know if one is better than the other." (#2)

"I like salad and I really do like fruits and vegetables a lot so I will try and eat a lot of them when I get them. If I could eat vegetables more than anything else then I would be content but it’s just not always accessible." (#2)

"I did the Weight Watchers diet and it actually worked like pretty well and I don’t really know how it works, it just tells me how many points I can eat and I pick foods that sound tasty" (#2)

"I’d have a more regular eating schedule and like a more balanced diet [if I could change what I eat]" (#2) 

"I shouldn’t eat as much fast food as I do, I shouldn’t eat as much like sugary things. But some sugar is not bad for you and you need fat in your diet" (#2)

"Like fruits and vegetables. I mean you need some of everything" (#5)

"I don’t feel like I need meat." (#5)

,' I always just think I’m healthy that I happen to like healthier foods because I wouldn’t eat them if I hated them." (#5)

"...the first thing that comes to my mind is like fresh.  Like I think of lighter things also.  I think of fish and salad and vegetables as healthy as compared to like meat or like heavy cream things or fried things. Those instantly make me think of unhealthy.  Healthy I think of like an Ahi tuna steak" (#12) In response to " What would you say makes a food healthy?"

"You stumble upon recipes and food blogs and cooking websites and they always say try this over this or this is healthier because of this.  Which I mean, obviously not all of it’s correct.  I’m very aware of that but I think like once you start to get the same things over and over again you start to think ok, that’s a better option" (#12)

"Um healthy diet I would say is like you’re getting the fruits and vegetables, you know, you’re getting the necessary nutrients and vitamins to live your life. I wouldn’t go extreme like you can’t eat any sugar and you can’t eat any carbs. You know if you’re eating right and working out I don’t see what the big deal is indulging a bit." (#11)

"it all started when I did my behavioral change project for my psych class last year and I used myself as a test subject. And like the more I exercised the more I wanted to put good food into my body. So that kind of really changed the way I ate a lot. And now that I exercise less cause I’m too lazy to walk to the gym and so I have to keep eating better" (#5)

Insights into university freshman weight issues and how they make decisions about eating.

-The myriad stressors college freshmen face from homework, interpersonal relationships, altered sleep patterns and loneliness compound any potential for poor eating and exercise behaviors

-Several studies of freshmen men and women revealed statistically significant weight gain among many freshmen, but the average weight gain reported is less than the "freshman 15" phrase implies. For example, Hoffman et al. (2006) found that freshmen gained an average of 2.86 pounds

-eating in all-you-can-eat dining halls and snacking/eating high-fat junk foods were found to contribute 20% each to freshman weight gain

-Increased independence from family, binge drinking, overeating following alcohol/drug use, sleep deprivation and stress management were suggested as factors to explore in understanding freshmen eating decisions

-Residence of college student was found to affect dietary intake and physical activity, with off-campus students having healthier diets with a higher level of energy from protein and healthier serum lipid levels than those students living on campus (Brevard and Ricketts 1996). One factor might be the types of food students keep in their dorm rooms. It was estimated that the average number of calories per dorm room of college freshmen is 22,888 (Nelson and Story 2009). In that study, over 70% of students had salty snacks, cereal or granola bars, main dishes, desserts or candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages in their dorm rooms. Items in the dorm room that had been purchased by parents for the students had higher caloric and fat content than items purchased by students themselves

-Food and beverage consumption with peers and social interactions on and off campus were often found shown as determinants of unhealthy eating behaviors.

-Participants detailed the challenges of living in residence halls and eating with roommates on different schedules as well as how eating and sleeping often times trumped class attendance.

-Participants reported several emotional issues that impacted dietary consumption. Boredom, loneliness, unhappiness and stress were consistently given as reasons for eating.

-Parents and other family members were found to influence consumption in a variety of ways--from providing time and money for the student to gain more food and beverage products for her dorm room to enabling over consumption on weekends, parents and other family members seemed to play a key role in dietary habits.

-When eating off campus, the majority of participants reported the need for cheap food in making the selection of where to eat.

-It is clear in the student diaries that many students find themselves in a negative cycle of food decisions that impact both their physical and emotional health. As mentioned earlier in the findings, difficulty in managing schedules is a major issue that freshmen face that can lead them into a self-destructive cycle.

-Proximity to grocery stores in general has been shown to be related to weight issues. Specifically, the presence of supermarkets was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and overweight whereas the presence of convenience stores was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight

Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students After a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall Sharon


- Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health

-Fast food consumption was also significantly related to lower physical activity levels and higher expenditures for food on campus

- Males also consumed more alcohol than females and spent more money for food on campus.

- Students who walked to campus packed a lunch 2.2±2.2 times per week, which was significantly less than those who drove to campus (3.8±2.1) or took public transit (4.0±1.9). In addition, differences were seen between the way students made their way to campus and their weekly budget for food. Specifically, those students who walked, bicycled or drove spent 38.0±50.7, 69.0±49.5, and 56.6±49.7 dollars respectively (p > 0.05) of their budget for food. Those students who took public transit to campus spent approximately 90.2±73.4 dollars per week (p < 0.05).

- Students who lived at home packed a lunch 4.1 ±2.1 times per week while those not living at home packed their lunch 2.8±2.1 times per week (p < 0.05).

- Fast food consumption per week differed significantly between those who reported to engage in physical activity often/regularly (1.1 ±1.2) and those who reported doing little or no physical activity during the week (2.3±2.1). Respondents who reported to engage in physical activity often spent 29.6±27.2 dollars more of their budget for food compared to those who reported to engage in physical activity sometimes. Respondents who reported to engage in physical activity sometimes spent 28 .4±0.5 dollars less than those participants who never engaged in physical activity. In addition, respondents who never engaged in physical activity spent 10.5±4.7 dollars more on campus per week compared to those who were physically active often (p < 0.05)

- Specifically, we identified that the number of hours spent on campus related to the amount of caffeine, number of packed lunches, and the frequency of breakfast bought on campus by undergraduate students. Students who buy breakfast on campus are also more likely to buy supper on campus. However, neither breakfast nor supper purchases showed any relationship with purchasing lunch on campus

- It is understood that water consumption is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however it is notable that individuals who drank more servings of caffeine per day drank significantly fewer servings of water

- These inter-relationships also convey that poor eating behaviours tend to cluster, as individuals who engage in one poor eating behaviour generally engage in other poor eating behaviours more frequently.

- Time spent studying was not related to time spent on campus but also time spent studying showed no relationship with caffeine consumption

- We found that those who budgeted more for food spent significantly more money on campus, consumed more caffeine, and purchased more non-alcoholic beverages on campus during the week.

-This demonstrates that behavioural habits are inter-related and are influenced by the availability of food and beverage options on campus.

- males also buy more lunch on campus and spend more money on campus which suggests that they have poorer eating behaviours than that of females

- In general, we have found that fast food consumption is linked to money spent on campus which begs the question that if there were healthier food choices on campus would this relationship change.

- students are not being educated on food purchasing and preparation before leaving home to live on their own. Educational institutions may then be required to take some responsibility for not only what food services they provide on campus but also for educating students about healthy eating and food preparation.

- Thus this information should help university services to better focus their resources to promote behaviours that show positive relationships with healthy eating, such as increased physical activity participation.

The Use of Nutritional Labels by College Students in a Food-Court Setting

-the focus group results reveal that college women and men were interested in the provision of nutrition labels in the food court-like setting found at the university, and that those exposed to labels over the course of the study noticed these labels and often referred to them when making purchase decisions.

-Despite the overall positive feedback about labeling, several other factors came into play regarding food purchases--- namely, price and convenience. Like many university dining systems, this university’s is based on points. These points represent a dollar amount and are swiped off the dining card at the time of purchase. As a student’s points diminish over the semester, she/he may trade healthier options for those using fewer points.

College students' compliance with food guide pyramid recommendations

-Only 33% of males and 21 % of females met the recommendations for all food groups. Additionally 57% of males and 53% of females complied with the recommendation for the grain/cereal group, 72% of males and 57% of females for the vegetable group, 82% of males and 71% of females for the fruit group, 82% of males and 87% of females for the dairy group, and 84% of males and 63% of females for the meat and meat alternates group.

-Students who lived on-campus, younger students, females, students who ate out infrequently, and students who rarely/never consumed high-fat foods and snacks showed the lowest compliance.

-The relationship between weight status and dietary compliance was inconsistent. Greater proportions of overweight/obese students met the recommendations for the grain/cereal and vegetable groups and for all food groups, whereas greater proportions of leaner students met the recommendations for the fruit, dairy, and protein groups. Statistically significant differences between overweight/obese and leaner students were found for the vegetable (P = 0.032) and dairy (P = 0.010) groups. Less than one-third of overweight/obese students and less than one-- fourth of leaner students complied with all food group recommendations.

-The type of restaurant usually patronized had the strongest impact on compliance with the recommendations for the grain/cereal and protein groups. Significantly greater proportions of students who generally patronized fast food restaurants met the recommendation for the grain/cereal group (P = 0.039) and protein group (P = 0.010) compared with students who generally patronized family restaurants/diners or cafes/delicatessens.

-Students who reported consuming high-fat foods and snacks often or sometimes showed a greater compliance with recommendations for individual food groups and for all food groups than those who reported consuming them rarely/never. Findings revealed that at least half the students who ate high-fat foods/snacks often, sometimes, or rarely/never met the recommendations for each individual food group. However, less than one-third of the students in these categories met the recommendations for all five food groups.

-Reading food labels did not have a strong influence on dietary compliance.Greater proportions of nonreaders met the recommendations for individual food groups and a significantly greater proportion (P = 0.011) met the recommendations for all five food groups.

-A small proportions of students complied with the recommendations for all five food groups

-Students complied least with the recommendations for the grain/cereal and vegetable groups.

-living on-campus and younger students complied less with FGP recommendations suggest a need to promote healthful eating in residence halls, student union centers, dining halls, and campus health/wellness centers. In-service education for on-campus food procurement and food service personnel about the importance of offering more nutrient-dense, familiar foods in student dining halls and vending machines might be done.

-Gender also influenced compliance, with smaller proportions of females meeting the recommendations for four of the five food groups

-The finding that students who eat out infrequently complied less with FGP recommendations than those who eat out more often may reflect budgetary constraints, limited cooking skills, poor time management skills, restricted access to food storage and cooking facilities, or little dietary variety. Several authors have observed that these factors may exert a powerful influence on the dietary practices of college students

-Students who rarely/never consume high-fat foods and snacks complied less with FGP recommendations than students who consume them sometimes or often.

The relationship between attitudes, demographic factors and perceived consumption of meats and other proteins in relation to the BSE crisis: a regional study in the United Kingdom

"Consumer factors that are known correlates of purchase and consumption of foods are many and varied, including demographic variables such as age, sex, socio-economic status, education, income level, and psychological variables such as perceived risk, personal utility, product perceptions, personality and attitudes" (Harvey et. al 2001)

"women consume 45% less meat per week than men; the consumption of meat and meat products increases as income decreases and also higher income groups tend to be more particular about beef cuts; meat eating tends to reduce with age" (Harvey et. al 2001)

"Attitudes and behaviour have been causally linked (e.g. Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977; Connor, 1994) and attitudes and consumer behaviour are not likely to be exceptional to these theories. It may be that attitudes also have an indirect effect, affecting evaluation of food which in turn influences purchase behaviour (Connor, 1994). There is increasing evidence, particularly based on the theory of reasoned action, showing the relationship between intention, attitudes and habit with consumption of foodstuffs including meat"... "However, Foxall and Bhate (1993) argue that a person’s concern about what others think of him or her renders attitudes of only limited value in the prediction of consumer behaviour."

"In relation to attitudes and beliefs specifically about health and food, there are clear demographic differences: for example, women show more health-related behaviours and attitudes towards food than do men (McIntosh et al., 1994; Monneuse et al., 1997) and this is also reflected in their lower consumption of red meat (MINTEL, 1997). Similarly, high income and socio-economic status are associated with more positive attitudes to risky health behaviour (McIntosh et al., 1994). Age is in some ways more complicated as a demographic variable: for example, attitudes are the strongest predictors of the intention to eat healthier food in young adults (Oygard and Rise, 1996)" (Harvey et. al 2001)

2. How do we access food? (Zac: look at lit. sources that pertain to eating on and off campus-agreement, disagreement, and distinctions. Produce a list of articles for reference pages in ASA)

"Because I am in control of the ingredients when I make my own food. Campus food is usually fried and processed." (#3)

"I go to the supermarket for just about everything. I am not a fan of eating out or fast food" (alex's interview #2)

"umm... I guess accessibility most---then after that I would choose desire" (alex's interview #2)

"My favorite is chicken parm, most accessible, umm... pasta with tomato sauce" (alex's interview #2)

 "I look forward to my pasta and sauce and homemade meatballs, but can't get that in the dining hall" (alex's interview #1).

 " I choose convenience..........don't like eating in the ding hall, so take stuff back to the room" (alex's interview 1)

"Sometimes I just don't know what to eat. Yes, the foods I want to have aren't popular with most people but seafood and its too expensive to buy....the dorm doesn't serve it or fresh fruit" (alex's interview 1)

"...which is also atypical for me because I usually eat breakfast cereal, but I’m currently out." (#9)

"...I am more limited by what I eat so my food choices are based more on necessity because I don’t have a car.  So when I get groceries is more limited, so normally I’m just eating whatever is on hand." (#9)

"I’d say it’s [my usual meal] usually very well rounded [when I'm at home]- my mom is very health-conscious." (#9)

"usually for breakfast I eat a yogurt every day, but my roommate bought me a grapefruit and I saw it in the fridge this morning so I ate that instead" (#5)

"I actually purposely didn’t get the on campus meal plan because I knew that I would use it to buy junk food"(#5)

"here I’m the one in control of what I buy so I can just buy healthy food and that’s what I have. But at home I can eat like whatever I want whenever I want because I don’t have to pay for it and I don’t have to go through the trouble of making it, it’s just there so I eat less healthy" (#5)

"...compared to on campus I eat like a king.  Campus food is crappy, and there’s not a lot of choices (pause) most of the choices are pretty bad" (#12)

" No, I eat what I like and more importantly I eat what’s at home. If there’s something that I like and want I’m not going to go out of my way to go and get it, I’m not gonna get up and go to the store" (#11)

(Bisogni et al. 1998) life-course study, fruit and veg consumption

Bisogni, Carole, Margaret Connors, Carol Devine, and Jeffery Sobal. 1998. “Life-course

      influences on fruit and vegetable trajectories: Qualitative analysis of food choices.”

      Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 30(6):361-370.

(Ree, Reidiger, and Moghadasian 2008)

Ree, M, N Reidiger, and MH Moghadasian. 2008. “Factors affecting food selection in

       Canadian population.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62(11):1255-62.

 3. Time limitations? (Makenzie:  look in the literature to see where and how time is a factor-references in  ASA. Also, pick out important quotes from here. Insert information from literature into the discussion. Put all of this analysis (notes, ideas, can be ruff) below your section. )

" what i have, how hungry i am at meal time (how long things take to make), if i have leftovers" (alex's interview #2)

"when I’m at school I’m not very good at cooking but I’ll either get like chicken or pasta or a lean cuisine or something that I can microwave really quickly" (#1)

"I usually get up pretty late so I tend to skip breakfast a lot" (#1)

"I just pick what’s easiest because I’m really not a good cook so…" (#1)

"I always basically have the same thing for lunch and dinner" (#1)

"It’s easy and it’s like getting something from a fast food restaurant is different then trying to make the same thing yourself cause it’s just doused in grease and delicious." (#1) (ease and appeal)

"my favorite fruit is . . . any kind of melon but I don’t usually buy melon because it’s too difficult" (#1) ease

"I skip meals everyday and it makes me feel very hungry and I don’t like it but I’m on the go constantly so I never really have a normal eating schedule like I should." (#2)

"I eat between “meals” like a lot because I nibble throughout the day to just keep myself going or else I’ll like die...I’ll get like Cheez-its out of the vending machine and eat them in class" (#2)

"I’m on the go constantly so that’s [fast food] sometimes my only option and the fact that it’s there is convenient so I don’t have to go all day without eating, I can get something on my way somewhere instead of taking a half-hour, forty-five minutes out of my day to make something." (#2)

"I like salad and I really do like fruits and vegetables a lot so I will try and eat a lot of them when I get them. If I could eat vegetables more than anything else then I would be content but it’s just not always accessible." (#2)

"that stuff [fruits and vegetables] spoils really quickly so I find that I waste a lot of it cause I’m never home to like eat it or prepare it or do anything with it. Like you cant really take like an orange while your driving and eat it while you drive." (#2)

"its hard when you have to bake chicken for like 45 minutes and you’re running to and from 500 hundred things so like making a vegetarian stir fry is just faster and it’s delicious" (#5)

"I would probably start thinking about it cause I never have  a lot of time to make dinner since I’m so busy so if I go home with a plan its easier and faster than running around the kitchen opening cabinets a bunch of times looking and deciding" (#5)

"Yah I feel like on the weekends is when I tend to cook things that I’m experimenting with or something that is going to take longer"(#5)

"I didn't have time in the morning , I was like getting ready for school and then when I got to school um I was busy working until our lunch period"( she's student teaching) (#6)

"I don’t have time to make something that i feel would take a while, like chicken,  then I don't bother making it, if I’m hungry I usually want something immediate and fast" (#6)

"I grab a cereal and milk instead of having a salad because it seems like just taking lettuce out of a bag and putting veggies and salad dressing on it takes too long" (#6)

"Part of the problem is like I buy vegetables here and then they go bad cuz I just don’t eat them in time" (#12)

"I don’t cooks that much(pause) here [at school].  Because I feel like I’m busy.  And when I’m not busy I’m tired.  So I don’t feel like cooking.  I used to like to cook more, now I don’t as much" (#12)

"I feel better when I’m eating better food, even though it doesn’t necessarily taste better.  Sometimes it does taste better, there’s a lot of healthy food that tastes really good" (#12)

"go with the quick, definitely more often than not"(#11)

"Um, probably when time dictates, I have a very busy schedule so I usually eat when I have time not necessarily if I’m hungry or not"(#11)

  4.   Living situations? (Zac: related to your other section. Don't bash CAS.  : D )

 "usually health (because I try to eat a yogurt everyday and fruit) but sometimes its just too much trouble to make something since I am in the dorm" (alexandra's interview #1).

"I look forward to my pasta and sauce and homemade meatballs, but can't get that in the dining hall" (alexandra's interview #1).

"I don’t really eat that much on campus because I commute" (#2)

"I usually eat dinner with people I live with" (#1)

"here I’m the one in control of what I buy so I can just buy healthy food and that’s what I have. But at home I can eat like whatever I want whenever I want because I don’t have to pay for it and I don’t have to go through the trouble of making it, it’s just there so I eat less healthy" (#5)

"I went home and i no longer had any friends to do stuff with  so I just started experimenting with baking" (#5)

." it’s harder to shop for myself but i like that I feel like I  have more options. i was really sick of the campus food and now that i can buy my own food, I feel like it’s easier for me to find things i like" (#6)

"on campus I would just choose anything that I would see that I liked, I didn't like that many options the school had.  off campus now, it’s hard for me to cook balanced meals, if I end up cooking i only cook one thing, I don’t include veggies or bread, etc." (#6)

"I don’t think we have had like one group or house meal, all six of us there at one time this entire semester, I mean we’ll be around like I’ll make dinner then an hour later someone else will make dinner but our schedules are so different that  I find it very difficult for us to especially have dinner together.(#11)

5. Cost of food (Rhiannon: look at the lit. section about cost of food. Look at the differences in language and word meanings. Find visuals-graphs about rising costs. Put your own analysis in.)

"I like seafood and its too expensive to buy......the dorm doesn't serve it or fresh fruit!" (alex's interview #1)

"The first thing is the dining hall, since I have no extra money to go out, I want to go to the salad bar everyday" (alex's interview #1)

" Umm every 3 weeks to a month and umm... $150-200? at the supermarket. Not concerned with expenses" (alex's interview #2)

the only time that I do eat too much is like if I go out to eat like with somebody and then I don’t like want to waste the food...I just don’t want to be rude. That and I do have to pay for it" (#2)

"I prefer to eat at home because like I don’t have to pay for all [eating out vs.eating at home] just depends on my financial situation" (#2)

"I’m a healthy eater when I have to plan ahead and go to the store and be like ‘what do I want to spend my money on’.. I don’t generally fill my cabinet with disgusting snack food but if I have the meal plan card on me I can just go the vending machine on a whim and I would eat like two Twix bars a day" (# 5)

"I don’t bake too much because it’s expensive and I don’t really have the time." (#5)

"Like baking a dozen cookies is cheap but I mean like baking a carrot cake or a cheese cake costs more especially if you want to make it taste good. My grocery budget is only $30 a week" (#5)

"I’m also influenced by how much things cost because I don’t want to go over my budget. But that really started when I wanted to see how well I could cook for myself on my budget of $30 a week. I think it’s going well so far. Especially if you don’t eat meat very day." (#5)

"if junk food is over $10 I won’t buy it...same with healthy food"(#6)

"I wish here that I could afford to buy a better variety of food or like different foods.  I don’t know I feel like I always buy the cheapest things and not necessarily what I always want the most." (#12)

"Yeah, it’s very expensive. A loaf of bread [gluten free] is probably half the size of a regular loaf of bread and it’s easily double the price, maybe more. So I definitely do that, I’ll go without buying gluten free bread or bagels even if I know I’m going to want a sandwich because it’s just so expensive. (#11)

Graphs and Images Illustrating Cost of Food (This is also a link to a blog written by students at the University of Washington. Might be worth a look for other topics as well)

"Even among the poor who receive a food stamps allocation, the amount received may be insufficient to meet their nutritional needs" (Hill and Macan, 1996) This is most definitely still the case. The current basement so to speak on food stamp spending is $200 per individual. As a single mother working 30+ hours per week whose child recently began attending school I only received $264 per month for food. You cannot buy anything pre-heated and many pre-made foods are outlawed as well. Food stamps does not cover any household items such as toilet paper, cleaning supplies, diapers or any other non-food items. This makes it extremely difficult for families living in poverty to survive even with the assist in their food budgets.

"Unfortunately the [thrifty food] plan fails to consider the lack of knowledge or inability of most recipients regarding planning, shopping and preparing nutritious low-cost meals" (Hill and Macan, 1996) This is also still a grave issue within the food stamp program. Though there have been some improvements and healthy eating assistance programs have sprung up more recently, (ex, Cornell Cooperative Extension) there still exists a great divide between what food stamp families can buy/prepare and what could be considered a healthy, nutritious diet rich in vitamins and minerals and all the things our bodies need to function properly and healthfully. As a food stamp recipient, I often found it difficult to buy and prepare nutritious meals on a regular basis. Being able to purchase something like fresh chicken breasts or a steak was a treat because I was consistently watching my balance each week as it dwindled down, simply hoping to survive to the end of the month. This was not just me, this is an extremely common occurrence within every food stamp family. 

6. What do others think of your eating habits? How do friends influence your choices? (Kate: look at body image for a theoretical framework. gender stereotypes. Find images)

     Identity, approval/disapproval

"Some friends I go with get a salad or soup. I will usually follow the crowd unless I am with the friends who eat the pizzas and burgers and pastas. So some eat well and some do not eat well at all" (alexandra's interview #1)

"Yes, the above two you mentioned. I never think of them unless you or Jerry bring them up. The artificial sweeteners.
I know. What about the High Fructose Corn Syrup because it's made with solvents and it's genetically modified and it’s not natural and it could potentially pose health risks. What do you think about what they are saying about unnatural foods like that?" (alex's interview 1)

"I’m very different then I know a lot of people are but he knows that I’m a pig an he’s fine with it. I can eat a lot and he (boyfriend) knows it." (#1)

"this is going to sound really weird but I love Brussels sprouts" (#1)

"obviously everybody has eaten to the point that they just like feel that, I shouldn’t have eaten that, so I try and stop myself before I know I’m going to have a stomach ache and not feel good after." (#2)

"the only time that I do eat too much is like if I go out to eat like with somebody and then I don’t like want to waste the food...I just don’t want to be rude. That and I do have to pay for it" (#2)

"I have a problem because I don’t eat regularly, like I’ll eat really late at night" (#2)

"I think it [body image]  makes me second-guess what I’ve already chosen [to eat]. Like I don’t have that conscious decision making process like 'I shouldn’t eat this' or whatever but I think that it definitely makes me think of it after the fact like, oh I should not have eaten that" (#2)

"I should be on one [a diet] but I’m not and yeah I’ve done diets in the past...I wanted to lose weight. I used to be in a lot better shape than I am now" (#2)

"I have a serious coffee addiction...[I drink] two cups a day but I tend to drink more like espresso so what I do drink is really high in caffeine compared to normal coffee." (#2)

"I get terrible headaches [skipping coffee], my head hurts so bad, so I know it’s a problem and I need to like wean myself off of it" (#2)

"we[my family and I] have a weird habit of eating a whole jar of pickles. Like a social gathering around the kitchen eating pickles which is really embarrassing. But we’ve just always really really liked them. like I’ll sit down to watch a tv show and my tv snack will be 2 or 3 pickles which is weird" (#5)

"I’m not just doing it[eating healthy] for myself…I feel the pressure of wanting to look good for other people…  I try to think about the time i have to meet my goal [to look good for sister's wedding]"(#6)

"sometimes I think I’ve been good so i treat myself but i think i end up sabotaging myself" (#6)

"she’s [my mom] kind of a health food nut" (#12)

"Like I feel like look at me, eating this balanced meal and this healthy salad as opposed to like when I’m eating like a cheeseburger.  Maybe it tastes good for a second but then I’m like I feel kind of fat and I feel kind of gross and I feel like everyone is judging me" (#12)

" To an extent I’m more careful (pause) I don’t want to say careful.  I think more about what I eat because I think people might judge me for what I eat.  Because I live with people who aren’t my family, who I didn’t grow up with.  And like I see it sometimes when my housemates will kind of make fun of the food I eat.  Um and I feel really bad and I feel like maybe I shouldn’t be eating this, I should be eating something else" (#12)

" I won’t take second helpings unless someone does it first" (#6)

  7.   Eating alone (Brittany: look up articles pertaining to the cognitive dissonance that occurs--why varying answers? When is it acceptable? when is it not? how have eating practices changed? tradition of eating socially mixed with stigmas and anxiety. How does it vary across lifespan (perceived)? ) 

  1. Do you usually eat lunch alone or with other people?

With other people. (#3)

  1. Do you ever eat alone?

If no one is at the house, then yes. (#3)

  1. If you eat alone how do you feel?

Fine, I just have to be entertained by something (#3)

  1. Do you watch television when you eat?

If I am at home, then yes. (#3)

  1. Do you watch television when you eat with friends?

No. Actually yes, but just for background noise when I’m with friends (#3)

(On seeing someone eating alone) "It depends on their setting: lame, studious, rushed" (#3)

"Cheerios for breakfast at like 11:30 or 12 alone on my couch watching the previous night’s Daily Show (with John Stewart) on TV yay dvr, haha" (alex's interview #2).

"yea….well at my office i share the office, but not eating "with" them" (alex's interview #2)

"I am pretty antisocial so I would never go out to eat alone. You know?" (alex's interview #2).

"I don’t usually do that" (#1)

"I feel bad for them . . . Because they look lonely" (#1) (disapproval)

"I don’t mind it [eating alone], like it doesn’t really bother me. I don’t have a preference either way. I don’t mind eating with people but I don’t mind eating by myself." (#2)

"In a school setting I don’t think anything [about a person eating alone] but like I think I question it more if it’s out in public." (#2)

"I know eating really all it technically it is something you have to do to stay alive, but in our culture eating is a huge social behavior, like now that we live off campus it’s like the first time in my life that sometimes I’ll eat dinner alone. Like you don’t go to the dining halls by yourself, and sit in upstairs Letch for an hour alone…you gather your friends and go together. And my family’s huge, so like I never have to eat alone, but that’s why I like cooking with the apartment (dinners as an apartment), or even if we all cook our own stuff and eat at the same time…because eating alone is just really lonely. It’s just boring." (#5)

"I used to feel really bad for people who came into the restaurant where I worked and ate alone, but now sometimes I think that can be kind of nice. Like this one woman would always come in and bring a book, and eat dinner by herself on Friday night---and okay that makes it sound kind of sad, but sometimes I think it could be kind of cool. Like take yourself out and just chill." (#5)

"I just think there is like a social stigma about eating by yourself and that people think it shows that you don’t have anyone to eat with, like it goes back to eating being a social thing." (#5)

"Tuesdays I tend to eat by myself, but usually I actually eat when I get to work so I eat while (a co-worker] like getting to work, but like…Monday, Friday I eat with my roommate, Wednesday I eat during my meeting with my thesis adviser so I’m actually double tasking, and Thursdays I eat with Dana. So yeah, I definitely try to eat with someone else everyday." (#5)

"I don’t feel uncomfortable eating alone, but I feel weird just sitting there eating, not doing anything else.  Just cuz I feel like (pause) I don’t know what to do with my eyes" (#12)

"Um, it depends if I’m in a hurry and I only have time like at a certain time I will go by myself, like I’m not afraid to eat alone ( in a ‘duh’ tone) but I would prefer to go with people" (#11)

[For College Kids: How to Eat Alone in the Dining Hall - MEG F. SCHNEIDER, MA, LCSW|]

  8.  Doing the right thing (Kate)

 "I wish I could eat pizza or pasta every day" (Alexandra's interview 1).

 "both (she focuses on healthy stuff and finances), but I tend to eat a salad everyday to make up for the extra carbs" (alexandra's interview 1)

"usually health because I try to eat a yogurt everyday and fruit but sometimes its just too much trouble to make something since I am in the dorm" (alexandra's interview 1)

"And all things that are high in calories are delicious to me, but I try to limit my portions. I try to eat half " (alexandra's interview 1)

"It is so, so hard to be good! I have issues with that. What kind of yogurt can and you can’t eat" (alexandra's interview 1)

"Because the stomach wants one thing and the head (the intellect) tells you something else" (Alexandra's interview 1)

  "Yeah. Those three (cake, cookies, cheeseburgers)  are the killers. I like all those you mentioned. I do eat a lot of low-fat ice cream, isn't that ok?" (Alexandra's interview 1).


powerpoint draft.pptx

9. Skills and knowledge (Alex:  Look at the articles in the Lit. review section for ones that fit with this. Find images such as pictures of cooking shows and a montage of magazine covers that pertain to this--pictures of magazine covers that may say stuff like :% things you should always eat" "10 things to leave out" "Best new diet trends". Place analysis underneath this section that includes quotes,  information from journal articles, and images that are relevant.)

WIKI Students' interview quotes relative to the literature on this topic:

"I like salad and I really do like fruits and vegetables a lot so I will try and eat a lot of them when I get them. If I could eat vegetables more than anything else then I would be content but it’s just not always accessible." (#2)

" I was eating a grapefruit and... I was like ‘why do we eat anything other than what’s already here’ because grapefruits are so delicious and its better for you than like cheese its or anything else that people have to make but at the same time I like foods like just seems right to eat things like grapefruit" (#5)

," if I’m feeling good about myself I’ll most likely stick to a healthy choice but if I’m already feeling bloated, I would most likely cave in and eat bad with them" (#6)

"I don't think differently about the people who take seconds first, its more personal about how i feel going first rather than me thinking about how others feel taking seconds helpings first" (#6)

See subject #1 "not a good cook" (#1)

"I wish I could be a better cook because it would make the choices I make a little easier because a lot of what I can make is all heavy carbs and stuff, so if I could cook like more types of chicken or something like that it would be helpful." (#1)

"It’s not that I don’t enjoy it [cooking]; I’m just not very good at it" (#2)

"I could totally know a lot more. Like I know the whole standard food pyramid  and like fruits and vegetables are good for you and like bread just turns into sugar and like potatoes are like not as good for you as I wish they are…so like stuff like that but I could definitely learn more about it" (#5)

"I would just go online  and google stuff if I really wanted to learn more"(#5)

"My psych professor told me that if cheese-its didn’t have salt that they’d taste like card board and then all of those foods that are like preserved and given to you without salt they would be disgusting and that’s why you shouldn’t eat them." (#5)

"I’m a terrible cook and I take too long doing simple things, like organizing images on word for school or something so when i try to cook, since I’m not good at it to begin with, it takes me a while, I have to practice to get better but I don’t always have the patience for it." (#6)

Graphs and Illustrations relative to the literature and WIKI quotes:

Quotes from review of literature relevant to WIKI interview findings:

“Food-related Attitudes and Behaviors at Home, School, and Restaurants: Perspectives from Racially Diverse, Urban, Low-income 9- to 13-year-old Children in Minnesota” by Kristen Dammann PhD, RD1, Chery Smith PhD, MPH, RD

When children were allowed food choice at home, such as during snack time, when they did not like the main meal being prepared, or if their parents were at work, their own cooking skills came into play. Some preferred convenience food, whereas others had expanded options because they could operate kitchen appliances or possessed more sophisticated cooking knowledge and skills. In general, children expressed an interest in food and cooking, usually doing food-related activities with an adult. They attributed their cooking skills to a variety of sources, including siblings, parents, experimentation in the kitchen, and cooking shows on television, and appeared to enjoy telling stories about their cooking mishaps.

Quotes from children in the article:

For children who did not get much food choice in their home or had limited cooking knowledge and skills, their intake depended on their mothers' (or other meal preparers') cooking skills.

One child said,

She [mother] cooks for me and her, she most of the time cooks what she likes and what I like. She cook what I like so that I just eat it and sometimes she try to make me try new stuff.

I miss my mom's real cooking and to me that's [shelter dining facility food] not really real food because it's just sometimes the food is like really really nasty and it's all burnt sometimes.

Thus, shelter living also influenced food-related attitudes and eating behavior by restricting families' cooking abilities.


“A Collaborative Approach to Nutrition Education for College Students” by Tara M; Goldstein, Marion; Franko, Debra L. found in the Journal of American College Health

Accessing nutrition, food, and health information is becoming increasingly popular among college students.

“It is not clear what kind of nutrition resources college students would find most helpful. In developing an interactive Internet-based nutrition education program described in detail elsewhere,  we posed 3 preliminary questions: (1) What kind of online nutrition information is currently available? (2) What kind of nutrition information do students want? And (3) Which elements of nutrition information do college health educators and counselors perceive as most relevant to today's students? “

What Is on the Internet? (continuation of journal article above)

To assess the current availability of online nutrition information for college students, we conducted an analysis of online nutrition information. We chose 5 key word groupings deemed most likely to result in nutrition-related Web sites  this population: nutrition, college students; diet, college students; nutrition program, college students; teens, nutrition intervention; and weight management in college. Using these key-word groupings, we compiled the first 25 search results from 3 popular search engines, Google, Yahoo!, and Lycos. A total of 375 search results (75 hits from each key word grouping) were filtered for redundancy, resulting in a final list of 232 distinct Web links. We categorized each search result as one of 9 types of Web links: vendors or products, nutrition strategies, interactive tools, resource pages or links, umbrella sites (eg, www.colleges. com,, research findings, university postings (eg, courses), or content unrelated to nutrition. We then coded each link according to whether the site offered nutrition information targeted to a college population, excluding college course listings or syllabi.

Not one of the resulting nutrition Web pages specifically targeted college students. Furthermore, only 4 of those Web sites (;; www.; and delivered nutrition information using at least 1 interactive feature (eg, quiz, body mass index calculations, personal nutrition tracking, or interactive food pyramids).

 We were surprised at the dearth of nutrition information specifically designated for college students.

“Good Grubbin': Impact of a TV Cooking Show for College Students Living Off Campus”  by Dawn Clifford PhD, RD1, Jennifer Anderson PhD, RD2, Garry Auld PhD, RD2, and Joseph Champ PhD3

“Media channels on college campuses may be one such way to deliver health information to students. Previous research suggests that college students prefer to obtain nutrition information from the media,15 with a recent study indicating that students prefer to obtain nutrition information through television above other media channels”

“The diets of college students are low in fruits and vegetables, with only 8% of students reporting that they eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day.8 Young adults commonly lack the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy needed for basic meal planning and food preparation skills, food preparation knowledge and attitudes of young adults. Those who report less frequent food preparation are less likely to consume fruits and vegetables than those who cook more often”

“The study results provide evidence that exposure to the cooking and nutrition television show, Good Grubbin’, resulted in a change in knowledge with regard to the dietary recommendations for fruits and vegetables, which was maintained at follow-up. The significant changes in knowledge agreed with published studies in televised nutrition research”

“Despite efforts to provide viewers with meal-planning and preparation skills and maximize peer modeling, the program did not influence self-efficacy, motivators, or barriers to cooking or eating fruits and vegetables. Without significant changes in self-efficacy, it is unlikely that those participating in nutrition education programs will make recommended dietary changes”

“In a study by Levy and Auld, there was an increase in self-efficacy in college students who attended a series of cooking classes. This finding suggests that hands-on learning is more advantageous for improving self-efficacy in cooking and meal planning than televised cooking programs. It is also possible that four 15-minute episodes was an insufficient dose to significantly influence dietary behaviors long-term”

“Media channels on college campuses may be one such way to deliver health information to students. Previous research suggests that college students prefer to obtain nutrition information from the media, with a recent study indicating that students prefer to obtain nutrition information through television above other media channels. Television is a far-reaching mass media channel that has the potential to disseminate health messages to large and diverse audiences”

“College students living away from home watch an average of 24.3 hours of television per week.”

“Food Preparation by Young Adults Is Associated with Better Diet Quality”

 (accessed through Science Direct)



Research Project’s Objective: To describe food-preparation behaviors, cooking

skills, resources for preparing food, and associations with diet quality among young adults.

***Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, national agenda for improving the health of the nation, targets key dietary behaviors for Americans, including intakes of fat, calcium-rich foods, fruits, vegetables, and grains (1,2). National nutrition data suggest the majority of young adults, ages 18 to 24 years, are consuming diets that are excessive in fat and inadequate in servings of calcium-rich foods, fruits, deep-yellow and green vegetables, and whole grains (2). These dietary patterns have been associated with increasing consumption of food prepared away from home, which tends to be less healthful than foods prepared at home.

***Research suggests that ease and convenience are highly valued by young adults and that lack of time can be a common barrier to preparation of meals at home…Appliances, time, money, and cooking skills, can also be important barriers

***The research questions addressed in this study include: (a) To what extent are young adults involved in preparing and purchasing food? (b) Do young adults have adequate resources for preparing and purchasing food?

Research Design and Subjects/Settings

Design Cross-sectional analyses were performed in a sample of young adults who responded to the second wave of a population-based longitudinal study. Measures pertaining to food preparation were self-reported and dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, both by a mailed survey. Subjects/setting Males (n􏰀764) and females (n􏰀946) ages

18 to 23 years.


**55.8% of young women prepared a dinner with chicken, fish, or vegetables at least once per week. Only 1/3 of women purchased fresh vegetables or prepared a green salad weekly and 23% wrote a grocery list every week. Only 13% of all males wrote a grocery list. And only 21% of all males bought vegetables once a week.

**More than 1/3 of both males and females reported that they did not have enough time to prepare food. 90% of respondents said they did not have proper access to appliances…and 18% females said they were “bad cooks” and 23% of males said they were “bad cooks.”

**Differences apparent for fruit and vegetable intake; 31% of those who reported high preparation were consuming five servings of fruits or vegetables daily, compared with only 3% of those who reported very low involvement.

****Similarly, 18% of those who reported high preparation were meeting the guideline for servings of deep-yellow or green vegetables

“Effect of Nutrition Intervention using a General Nutrition Course for Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among College Students” by, Eun-Jeong Ha PhD and Natalie Caine-Bish PhD, RD, LD

** Extensive research shows that college students consume between 2.1 and 5.5 fruit/vegetable servings, which is below current recommendation of 9 servings or 4.5 cups.

**Authors recognize that relatively few health, cooking, nutrition programs available for college kids.

Design: 3-day food records were collected from a basic nutrition class, verified data, before and after the intervention.

Participants: 80 college students, ages 18-24

**Overall vegetable and fruit consumptions were low at beginning of study- “were low at the beginning of the study. Seventy-two percent of participants consumed 1 cup or less of total vegetables, and 90% of participants consumed 1 cup or less of fresh at the onset of the investigation. Both total vegetable and fresh vegetable consumption increased by the end of the investigation. Sixty-five percent of the participants were consuming more than 1 cup of vegetables and over 50% of the participants were consuming more than 1 cup of fresh vegetables by the conclusion of the class.  of starchy vegetables did not change from pre- to posttest (P = .47).

Overall, students participating in this study demonstrated an increase in fruit consumption. Ninety-two percent of participants consumed 2 cups or less of fruit per day. By the conclusion of the semester, 22% of the participants were consuming more than 2 cups of fruit per day. Increases in fresh consumption were also shown whereby at the time of the pretest, 90% of participants were consuming 1 cup or less of fresh fruit but at posttest, 39% of participants were consuming greater than 1 cup of fresh  per day. There was only 10% decrease in juice consumption over the semester, which was found to be nonsignificant between pre- and posttest measures (P = .147). No change in the consumption of canned fruit was demonstrated (P = .473).

10. Family influence (Demi: look at journals in lit review section and find information that pertains to this topic. Find images that are related to this (pictures, graphs, comics, ect.)

" nope, I do my own thing and I am completely content with what I do" (alex's interview 2).

"I feel like when you’re little your parents teach you to ‘eat your fruits and vegetables and be good’" (#5)

"my boyfriend does it [the cooking], he’s a better cook than I am . . . " (#1)

"I can make like very simple things. Like I can cook a chicken breast and like that’s about it."  (#1) Not necessarily an *easy* thing to cook

"I told my parents 'I’m not eating meat because I’m a vegetarian' on Christmas; my family makes prime rib on Christmas so I sat out and ate green beans and was miserable cause I just wanted to eat what everybody else was eating (#2)

"[Family influences food choices] Not as much as they used to because I don’t really eat with my family anymore because I’m constantly on the go but when I was little my parents cooked but we went out to dinner a lot and we ate a lot of fast food which is like not good especially when you’re a kid but it is what it is" (#2)

"my mom was not like a health food freak but she always feed us balanced meals and she wouldn’t let us leave the table until we ate our fruits and vegetables." (#5)

"I always liked vegetables but I feel like if my mom had never given them to me then I wouldn’t."(#5)

"after my parents got divorced and my mom went back to work and she worked crazy hours it was my job every day to make dinner for my 4 siblings and I since I was the oldest. but it was a lot of…I feel like it wasn’t a lot of healthy stuff because I was so young. Like I learned how to make pasta, mac and cheese, and like pre heat the oven and throw fries in or something. Like easy stuff that my mom could buy frozen and I could just heat up and give to everybody. Or like canned stew and rice…stuff like that" (#5)

"While we were growing up it was always my mom’s philosophy of life that having dinner every night kept families close." (#5)

"my family does not eat super healthy so I get nervous that I am going to fall into the same unhealthy food choices as they do when I reflect back on what I ate certain days" (#6)

"well I definitely don't feel as bad eating cereal for dinner if my sister tells me she just had fried chicken" (#6)

"she’s [my mom] kind of a health food nut" (#12)

" dad usually cooked breakfast. And my mom would always cook dinner. And try and always sit down, all four of us, but it was a rare night that we could all get together and sit down at the table."(#11)   

11. Replicated? (Demi)

"I think it’s definitely learned because my parents were very big on making me eat them [brussels sprouts]. Like they would feed them to me in the bathtub when I was little because I just . . . " (#1)

"A lot of people that I live with are overly focused on it so I think that tends to get to me but my family has always taught me to just be like okay with who you are but my friends are kind of going against that so it depends on the day…" (#1)

"Just my parents because they always insisted that I try new things. Like even if I had tried them before they would make me try them a few times" (#1)

"From my mom. I guess originally. I feel like when you’re little your parents teach you to ‘eat your fruits and vegetables and be good’" (#5)

"I always grew up eating a lot of fruits and vegetables and those are my favorite things to eat now still and Schneider’s pretzels that addiction came from home too" (#5)

    12.  Modified/changes

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